This panoramic view of Dublin, made by London artist Henry William Brewer in 1890 after visiting the city, was part of a supplement to the London Graphic newspaper. Brewer seemed taken aback at the natural beauty of Dublin’s situation, quality of light, planning and architecture. The choice of vantage point seems almost like a retreat to the old medieval stronghold of the city, the Liberties, on high ground especially around Thomas Street, once one of the principle spines in and out of Dublin. His view of Dublin is very different to that of his precursors, and suggests a different, largely non-neoclassical emphasis.
His choice of vantage point is perhaps explained by his accompanying commentary, in which he says he likes the ‘picturesque’ quality of the Liberties, which at this point would have been home to some of the poorest people in Dublin, many living in appalling conditions. Brewer chooses to place the emphasis on Dublin’s churches in his view of the city. The perspectival manner he employs makes them seem like they are almost looming out of the city’s otherwise low-rise and gloomy fabric.
Dublin is situated at the mouth of the River Liffey, which empties into Dublin Bay, and encompasses a land area of approximately 115 square kilometers in east-central Ireland. It is bordered by the Dublin Mountains, a low mountain range and sub range of the Wicklow Mountains, to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west.
The river divides the city in two, between the Northside and the Southside. Two secondary rivers divide even more the city: the River Tolka, running southeast into Dublin Bay, and the River Dodder, running northeast to near the mouth of the Liffey. A number of lesser rivers and streams also flow to the sea. Two canals (the Grand Canal on the southside and the Royal Canal on the northside) ring the inner city on their way from the west and the River Shannon.
The town planning and the structure of Dublin are very influenced by the geographical factors because, even though the streets of Dublin follow an irregular structure, the town centre is located near the Liffey River and the borders of the areas depend on this river and the smaller ones. That way, the expansion of the city has always gone from the sea and the river to the opposite directions (west of the coast, north and south of both sides of Liffey River).
The first historic reference to Dublin can be found on the writings of Ptolemy, who talks about a city or settlement in that area called Eblana, around the year 140. The Celts arrived in the bay around the year 700 BC, converting to Christianity in the 5th century, through the work of St. Patrick, patron of Ireland. Around 841, the Vikings came to the area and founded a commercial area on the south bank of the river Liffey which they called Dubh Linn (black lagoon).
In 1014, the Irish king Brian Boru defeated the Vikings and from the 12th century the city was definitely controlled by the Normans. In 1541 the Lordship of Ireland was abolished and the Kingdom of Ireland was born. Thus, in 1592 was founded by Queen Elisabeth the first University of Ireland, the Trinity College.
In 1801, England crushed several riots and abolished the Irish Parliament; after that, the seat of the Parliament moved to London and Ireland was integrated in the United Kingdom. By 1900 Dublin had ceased to be the most important city in Ireland surpassed by Belfast, a city that had experienced an important industrial revolution. In 1916 the streets of Dublin experienced a new uprising against British government. In 1919 the Anglo-Irish civil war began, destroying much of Dublin, from which came the recognition of the Free State of Ireland. The Free State of Ireland, dependent on the English Monarchy, lasted until the proclamation of the Republic. In 1937 a new constitution was approved that replaced the Irish Free State by a new State called Éire.
The structure of the city has changed a lot since its foundation to the era of the image above, but it has changed even more from that time to nowadays. Some of those changes came from that riots and events that took place during Dublin’s history, but recent years have taken a complete turn to the landscape of Dublin: large companies have settled in the capital and new buildings have changed the picture of the city. Dublin has become one of the most visited capital cities in Europe with some remarkable places like the Temple Bar or Guinness Storehouse, apart from the places shown in the picture.